This research touches upon the problem of modification and adaptation of orthodox Marxism to modern European substance. The basic idea of this research is the examination of objective reasons for the formulation of a national modification of communism. It includes the phenomenon of national communism in Russia and Eastern Europe, Euro-communism in Western Europe and elsewhere. The purpose is to compare the tradition of national communism in Ukraine and Europe. Another task is to give answers to why national communism in Ukraine crashed in the 1920’s, while in European countries it led to a democratization of the authoritarian regime.