The tentative peace process in Turkey collapsed in 2015, followed by armed conflicts between the Turkish state and PKK (Kurdish Workers' Party) in Diyarbakır among many other Eastern cities. Located in the most populous Kurdish city and de facto center of the Kurdish political and social mobilization in Turkey, the old town of Diyarbakır, Sur, became a symbol of resistance against the long-lasting oppression of Kurds in the country. Consequently, it also became the number one target of the Turkish state in keeping the Kurdish population under control. This research explores the relationship between ethnic conflict, counterinsurgency strategies, and urban renewal projects via their impacts on urban space in Diyarbakır. This ethnographic study is based on semi-structured interviews with the displaced people, the former mayor of Sur and her team, and local civil organizations and experts. This case study aims to reveal how state military and administrative forces use urbanism as a counterinsurgency strategy to subjugate Kurdish cities and people, seen as a counter-hegemonic challenge to Turkey’s existing status quo.