Lemkin and Lauterpacht in Lemberg and Later: Pre- and Post-Holocaust Careers of Two East European International Lawyers

Two of the most prominent and influential international lawyers of the 20th century both studied law at Jan Kazimierz University in the Galician capital, called Lemberg during the Habsburg era and Lwów in interwar Poland. Both were former Jewish activists who in their professional careers focused on crimes against humanity and, in particular, the Holocaust, and both played an important role in Nuremberg in 1945 and 1946. Although the two of them do not seem to have gotten along, their common ‘Galician’ imprint is obvious. And while Lauterpacht had more professional success during his lifetime than Lemkin, the latter gained global prominence posthumously as ‘father’ of the term ‘genocide’.*

Raphael Lemkin (1900-1959)

Raphael Lemkin (1900-1959)

On December 9, 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted at its meeting in Paris the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide followed on the next day by the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Both documents were inspired by the experience of World War II in general and of the Holocaust in particular. Both marked a significant change in the development of international law: The sovereign state was no longer the dominant category—now also the individualhuman being figured as a subject of international law. Instrumental in bringing the two instruments about were two men: Raphael Lemkin, who had coined the term ‘genocide’, and Hersch Lauterpacht, the promoter of the concept of a‘crime against humanity’.

Hersch Lauterpacht (1897-1960)

Hersch Lauterpacht (1897-1960)

Thus the two of them, who both got their education at the law faculty of Jan Kazimierz University in the Galician capital of Lemberg (Lwów in Polish), can be considered the trailblazers of human rights versus state sovereignty in international law.[1] Both devoted their entire professional life to the promotion of the rule of law in international relations, of respect for the rights of the individual, and of the idea to hold governmental perpetrators of mass crimes personally responsible —as if Lauterpacht and Lemkin had made the motto Semper fidelis (“Always faithful”) bestowed in 1658 by Pope Alexander VII upon the city of Leopolis, thus the Latin name of Lwów, their personal device.

Accordingly, one would assume that due to their partly parallel biographies the two international lawyers were close allies acting in concert, even brothers in spirit. And indeed the two men had many things in common:

First, both came from liberal Jewish families in Polish-speaking surroundings— Lemkin from the farmstead of Ozerisko near Wolkowysk in the Russian half of partitioned Poland (today Vaukavysk in Western Belarus), Lauterpacht from the small town of Zolkiew near Lwów in the Habsburg part, today Žovkva near L’viv in Western Ukraine. Both were fluent in Hebrew and Yiddish, and active in Zionist youth and student organizations.

Second, in addition to their common regional and cultural background, the two men belonged to the same generational cohort—Lauterpacht was born in 1897, Lemkin in 1900—andcoincidentally, died at nearly the same age: Lauterpacht in 1960, Lemkin in 1959.

Third, as already mentioned, both studied law at Jan Kazimierz University in Lwów, partly with the same professors, though not at the same time—Lauterpacht from 1915 to 1919, Lemkin from 1920 to 1926.

Four, already their early publications showed that both were intrigued by the new developments in international law triggered by the Paris Peace Conference, such as the establishment of the League of Nations in Geneva, the Permanent Court of International Justice in The Hague, international minority protection, the emergence of international penal law and so forth.

Five, during the interwar years both established themselves as nationally and internationally influential experts in various fields of international law.

Six, they both emigrated from Central Europe to Anglophone countries—Lauterpacht moved twenty years before the Holocaust to the UK, Lemkin narrowly escaped the Holocaust and came to the US.

Seven, both were targets of open or hidden anti-Semitic attacks for their entire lives, from their Galician childhood until their old age in the UK and US respectively.

Eight, they both lost almost all their relatives, including their parents, in the Holocaust.

Nine, they both played a significant role in the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal of 1945/46 where they managed to have their key concepts of the 1948 instruments—‘genocide’ respectively ‘crimes against humanity’—implemented.

Ten, last but not least, both considered what they had achieved at the UN in 1948 in the form of the Genocide Convention and the Human Rights Declaration not as their greatest successes but as bitter defeat due to compromises and vague wording.

Of course, their professional biographies also showed significant differences: Lauterpacht left Lwów in 1919 and went to Vienna to study with Hans Kelsen, moved for his PhD in 1923 to London, got a job at LSE in 1927 and was in 1937 elected to the prestigious Whewell Chair of International Law at Cambridge—a position he kept until his retirement in 1955. And despite strong opposition by English anti-Semites in governmental and academic circles he was nominated British judge of the International Court of Justice in 1954. That was Mount Olympus for any international lawyer. Lemkin, on the other hand, stayed in the new Poland, got his PhD in 1926 in Lwów, made a career in the judiciary in Warsaw and represented Poland in international legal fora while pursuing his academic interests. In 1934, due to anti-Semitic pressure, he left the public sector and very successfully started his own law firm by focusing on consulting foreign taxpayers in Poland. In early 1940, he managed to escape from Soviet-occupied Eastern Poland via Lithuania and Latvia to Sweden, whence he emigrated in 1941 via the Soviet Union, Japan and Canada to the United States. Oscillating between short-term university jobs and equally short governmental employment he never achieved a permanent position, no US publishing house was interested in his project of a three-volume History of Genocide, and in 1959 he died in New York in dire poverty of a heart attack while lobbying for the publication of his autobiography.[2]

The main difference in the careers of the two men is obviously the post-Holocaust part. In the 1950s, Lauterpacht gained a reputation as Britain’s internationally most respected expert in the field of international law in general and human rights in particular, while the name Lemkin sank into oblivion for more than two decades. The titles of two recent articles make this difference obvious. In 2008, Anthony Carty of the University of Hong Kong portrayed Lauterpacht as “A Powerful Eastern European Figure in International Law”[3] while in 2010 the Polish legal historian Ryszard Szawlowski titled a sketch of “Raphael Lemkin’s Life Journey” aptly “From Creative Legal Scholar and Well-to-do Lawyer in Warsaw until 1939 to Pinnacle of International Achievements during the 1940s in the States Ending Penniless Crusader in New York in the 1950s.”[4] In biographical terms, this juxtaposition may be justified: Lauterpacht lived a happier private life than Lemkin, particularly in the 40s and 50s, and Hersch’s career achievements were definitely more significant than Lemkin’s. But in today’s perspective, the prominence of the name Lauterpacht is confined to legal circles while Lemkin’s name is globally associated with the term ‘genocide’. Thus the first two sentences of the entry on ‘genocide’ in the Merriam-Webster online encyclopedia read:

Genocide: Deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, religious, political, or ethnic group. The term was coined by Raphael Lemkin, a Polish-born jurist who served as an adviser to the U.S. Department of War during World War II, to describe the premeditated effort to destroy a population.”[5]

Yet, in the broader public Lemkin is not only know as the ‘father’ of the term ‘genocide’ and as the author of the concept of preventing and punishing ‘genocide’ but even more so as the person who singlehandedly alerted the world public to ‘the crime of crimes’. In 2002, Samantha Power, currently US President Barack Obama’s Special Assistant for Human Rights and in May 2013 nominated US ambassador to the UN, set out in her Pulitzer Price-winning book “A Problem from Hell”: America and the Age of Genocide to describe “How One Man Put Genocide on the World’s Conscience”[6], referring, of course, to Lemkin. And in 2010, the Polish Institute of International Affairs published a collective volume on Lemkin subtitled emphatically A Hero of Humankind.[7] Accordingly, some ten biographies (plus two theater plays) have been written on Lemkin in English, Polish, French and other languages, whereas the one and only biography of Lauterpacht has been published by his son (and successor as judge of the International Court of Justice) Sir Elihu Lauterpacht.[8] On the other hand, the authoritative Oxford Handbook of the History of International Law, published just a few months ago, portrays in its prosopographic section 21 eminent legal practitioners, scholars and politicians who have shaped international law from the Early Middle Ages until 1950, including, of course, Hersch Lauterpacht. Lemkin’s name, however, figures only once in the book’s 1,200 pages.[9] So much for the difference between public and academic prominence.

Now what about direct interaction between the two giants from Lwów? Although neither Lauterpacht nor Lemkin ever mentioned a personal meeting or communication by letter or phone, it is quite likely that they met in person. In 1928, Lauterpacht attended a conference on international law in Warsaw where Lemkin lived and worked at the time.[10] In World War II, Lauterpacht made two trips to the US to consult with Justice Robert H. Jackson who in 1945 and 1946 acted as US Chief Prosecutor at the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal. One of Jackson’s advisors in this capacitywas Lemkin, who in 1945 and 1946 travelled several times from the US to London and Nuremberg.[11] At the same time, Lauterpacht was a member of the British War Crimes Executive, prepared the speeches of the British Chief Prosecutor in Nuremberg, Sir Hartley Shawcross, and personally was present at the Tribunal in Franconia in November 1945 and May 1946. Lemkin also participated in the first post-war conference of the International Law Association in August of 1946 in Cambridge, then Lauterpacht’s place of work and residence. In his memoirs, Lemkin reports:

“I fly to England to address a conference of three hundred lawyers from England and the Continent, to win support for the concept of genocide as an international crime. It’s a cool reception.”[12]

Furthermore, both Lauterpacht and Lemkin had a number of common acquaintances in the field of international law like Vespasian Pella of Romania and the above-mentioned Robert Jackson of the United States. There is, however, no documentary evidence of any direct contact between the two former Jewish law students from Galicia. Moreover, there is reason for the assumption that the two of them held each other in little esteem.. Lemkin never used the term ‘crimes against humanity’, just as Lauterpacht usually avoided the term ‘genocide’, and when he used it he avoided any reference to Lemkin.[13] While Shawcross in his summation in Nuremberg in July 1946 spoke of ‘genocide’ no less than five times,[14] the drafts written by his adviser Lauterpacht did not contain the neologism.[15] He had published a short, but appreciative review of Lemkin’s seminal book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. Laws of Occupation, Analysis of Government, Proposals for Redress of 1944 as early as 1945. Lauterpacht characterized it as “imposing”, highlighting the “critical and general survey of […] what he [= Lemkin] calls ‘genocide’—a new term for the physical destruction of nations and ethnic groups.”[16] This, however, did not prevent Lauterpacht in the first volume of his authoritative textbook International Law. A Treatise of 1955 to declare the concept of ‘genocide’ as virtually useless.[17] John Cooper, author of a recent biography on Lemkin, even goes so far to state that “Lauterpacht regarded Lemkin as a crank.”[18]

But what about indirect contact or common influence, such as through their professors in Lwów? We know that during his studies in Lwów Lemkin attended lectures by Ludwik Ehrlich who taught international law and state law there from 1920—the year after Lauterpacht had left to Vienna.[19] Lauterpacht, however, praised Ehrlichs monograph Prawo Narodów (Law of Nations) of 1926 as “excellent” in an article of 1928 in the Polish legal journal Glos Prawa [20]—although the two of them had been rivals in applying for the prestigious Lwów chair in 1925. Ehrlich, who had spent the decade from 1911 to 1920 studying and teaching in Germany, Great Britain and the US, was a truly ‘international’ international lawyer: In the interwar period he lectured in Czechoslovakia, Romania, and the Netherlands, and in 1927/28 he was an ad hoc judge at the Permanent International Court of Justice in The Hague.[21] Most probably Lauterpacht and Lemkin both were in contact with Ehrlich at the Nuremberg tribunal where the latter, then holder of the Chair in International Public Law at the Jagellonian University in Cracow, acted as legal adviser to the Polish delegation.

Before Ehrlich, the chair in Lwów had been held since 1889 by Stanislaw Starzynski, an expert in constitutional law and a popular politician in Austria-Hungary and interwar Poland.[22] Both Lauterpacht and Lemkin were students of Starzynski, who figures anonymously in an episode related by Lemkin in his recently published memoirs.[23] According to Lemkin, he got into a heated dispute with one of his academic teachers in Lwów in 1921 over the verdict of “not guilty” for the Armenian student Soghomon Tehlirian, who in Berlin had assassinated the Young Turk politician Mehmet Taalat Pasha, one of the main organizers of the genocide against the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire in 1915/16. In Lemkin’s view, not the assassin but the assassinated should have been tried for the crime of murder. His professor contradicted him by referring to state sovereignty: “Let us take the case of a man who owns some chickens. He kills them. Why not? It is not your business. If you interfere, it is trespass.”[24] Lemkin’s answer was as firm as it was brief: “Sovereignty cannot be conceived as the right to kill millions of innocent people.”[25]

This answer might as well have been given by Lauterpacht whose oeuvre is characterized by a struggle for the individual right of the human being and against what he called “the deification of the state” and its sovereignty.[26] In any case it was not the Holocaust which led Lemkin to coin the term ‘genocide’. Rather, it was the Ottoman-Turkish massacre against the Armenians of Anatolia as well as, later on, the famine administered by Stalin in Soviet Ukraine 1932/33, nowadays known as Holodomor, and probably also his personal childhood experience of anti-Jewish pogroms in Russian Poland which ravaged his home and lead to his brother’s death.[27] However, in the interwar period Lemkin still operated with terms like ‘barbarity’, ‘vandalism’, and ‘terrorism’.[28] The term ‘genocide’ figured for the first time in his seminal book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe written in 1943 and published in New York in 1944. What in 1941 Winston Churchill had still called “a crime without name” now was given one.[29] By the way, in contrast to Lauterpacht, Lemkin had a rather relaxed view on the use of force. When in 1926 the nationalist Ukrainian politician Symon Petljura was assassinated by the Russian anarchist Sholom Schwartzbard in Paris, Lemkin spoke of “a beautiful crime”.[30]

Recently the British lawyer and Professor of International Law at University College London, Philippe Sands, stated with reference to Lauterpacht and Lemkin in an article on what he calls “the unexpected place of Lviv in international law”:

“Lviv, or Lwów, or Lemberg has made a singular contribution to the creation and application of the modern international legal order. The city’s DNA is impregnated into the modern international legal order.”[31]

One can fully agree with this statement by a leading legal expert. Yet core questions remain: What shaped Lauterpacht’s and Lemkin’s focus on the individual against the state? Was it their outsider position as Jews in a Habsburg and post-Habsburg anti-Semitic environment? Was it probably shared pposition to Starzynski’s orthodoxy during their studies in the Galician capital— or had both a common and so far unidentified teacher of a more liberal bend? Currently, Oksana Holovko-Havryševa of the European Law Department at Ivan Franko National University in L’viv is searching the university archives for information on courses and lectures attended by Lauterpacht and Lemkin, as well as on the law professors who taught them. I am sure her findings will give us a more detailed picture of the formative period of the legal thought of two young Jewish students of law during the decade 1915 to 1926 who later on wrote world history in the true sense of the word. In any case, even the little we know by now on Lauterpacht and Lemkin in Lwów is further proof that modern international law was shaped deciseively by the conflict-ridden history of Eastern Europe, as well as by quite a number of eminent legal scholars from this part of Europe.


© Author / Transit 2013

Stefan Troebst, a historian and Slavicist by training, is Professor of East European Cultural Studies at the University of Leipzig and Deputy Director of the Leipzig Centre for the History and Culture of East-Central Europe (GWZO). He is currently leading a research group investigating the impact of Eastern Europe’s conflict history on the development of modern international law.


* Paper given at the Annual Conference 2013 of the Imre Kertész Kolleg at Friedrich Schiller University Jena on “Catastrophe and Utopia: Central and Eastern European Intellectual Horizons 1933 to 1958” in Budapest, 13-15 June 2013.—I am obliged to Cindy Daase of the Leipzig Centre for the History and Culture of East-Central Europe (GWZO) and to Adamantios Skordos of the University of Vienna for advice.

[1] Vrdoljak, Ana Filipa: Human Rights and Genocide: The Work of Lauterpacht and Lemkin in Modern International Law. In: The European Journal of International Law 20 (2010), 1163-1194, here 1165.

[2] Frieze, Donna-Lee: Introduction. The “Insistent Prophet”. In: Lemkin, Raphael: Totally Unofficial. The Autobiography of Raphael Lemkin. Ed. by Donna-Lee Frieze (New Haven, CT, London: Yale University Press, 2013), ix-xxvii, here ix.

[3] Carty, Anthony: Hersch Lauterpacht: A Powerful Eastern European Figure in International Law. In: Baltic Yearbook on International Law 7 (2007), 83-111.

[4] Szawlowski, Ryszard: Raphael Lemkin’s Life Journey: From Creative Legal Scholar and Well-to-do Lawyer in Warsaw until 1939 to Pinnacle of International Achievements during the 1940s in the States Ending Penniless Crusader in New York in the 1950s. In: Bienczyk-Missala, Agnieszka, Slawomir Debski (eds): Rafal Lemkin. A Hero of Humankind (Warsaw: The Polish Institute of International Affairs, 2010), 31-57.

[5] URL http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/genocide. For a scholarly treatment see Barth, Boris: Genozid. Völkermord im 20. Jahrhundert. Geschichte, Theorien, Kontroversen (München: C. H. Beck, 2006). Also in general works on human rights Lemkin is a trade mark while Lauterpacht is mentioned rarely. See, e.g., Hoffmann, StefanLudwig, ed., Human Rights in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), or Moyn, Samuel: The Last Utopia. Human Rights in History. (Cambridge, MA, London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2010).

[6] Power, Samantha: “A Problem from Hell”: America and the Age of Genocide (New York: HarperCollins, 2002), backflap.

[7] Bienczyk-Missala, Debski, eds: Rafal Lemkin. A Hero of Humankind.

[8] Lauterpacht, Elihu: The Life of Sir Hersch Lauterpacht, QC, FBA, LLD (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

[9] Scobbie, Iain: Hersch Lauterpacht (1897-1960). In: Fassbender, Bardo, Anne Peters, eds, The Oxford Handbook of the History of International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 1179-1183. On Lemkin see ibid., 140. In the index his name is missing.

[10] Lauterpacht: The Life of Sir Hersch Lauterpacht, QC, 21.

[11] Lemkin: Totally Unofficial, 235-236.

[12] Ibid., 236. For Lemkin’s speech see The International Law Association: Report of the Forty-first Conference held at Cambridge in the Old Schools, August 19th to 24th, 1946 (Cambridge 1948), 25-26. Lauterpacht was a member of the ILA and addressed its forty-third conference in 1946. See Lauterpacht, Hersch: Human Rights, the Charter of the United Nations, and the International Bill of the Rights of Man. Report to the International Law Association. In: International Law Association: Report of the Forty-third Conference of the International Law Association held at Brussels in 1948 (Cambridge 1950), 80-138.

[13] See, e.g., the treatment of genocide in Lauterpacht, Hersch: International Law and Human Rights (London: Stevens & Sons, 1950), 44.

[14] Shawcross, Hartley: Summation. In: Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, 14 November 1945 – 1 October 1946. Vol. XIX: Proceedings, 19 July 1946 – 29 July 1946 (Nuremberg 1947), 433-681, here 494, 497, 498, 509 and 515 (URL http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/ pdf/NT_ Vol-XIX.pdf). See also Schabas, William A.: Raphael Lemkin, Genocide and Crimes against Humanity. In: Bienczyk-Missala, Debski, eds, Rafal Lemkin. A Hero of Humankind, 233-256, here 241, as well as on Shawcross: Shawcross, Hartley, and Baron Shawcross: Life Sentence. The Memoirs of Lord Shawcross. London: Constable, 1995. However, in this book’s chapter “Nuremberg and the Nazi Criminals” (85-137) neither Lauterpacht nor Lemkin do figure.

[15] Sands, Philippp: Twin Peaks: The Hersch Lauterpacht Draft Nuremburg Speeches. In: Cambridge Journal of Comparative and International Law 1 (2012), 37-44, here 40.

[16] Lauterpacht, Hersch: Review of Raphael Lemkin: Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. In: Cambridge Law Journal 9 (1945), 140. See Lemkin, Raphael: Axis Rule in Occupied. Europe. Laws of Occupation, Analysis of Government, Proposals for Redress (Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1944) (Reprint Clark, NJ: The Lawbook Exchange, 2008).

[17] Lauterpacht, Hersch: International Law. A Treatise by Lassa Oppenheim. Vol. 1: Peace (London: D. McKay, 1955), 744.

[18] Cooper, John: Raphael Lemkin and the Struggle for the Genocide Convention (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 229.

[19] Kornat, Marek: Raphael Lemkin’s Formative Years and the Beginning of International Career in Inter-war Poland (1918-1939). In: Bienczyk-Missala, Debski, eds, Rafal Lemkin. A Hero of Humankind, 59-73, here 62.

[20] Lauterpacht, Hersch: Sukcesija panstw w odniesieniu do zobowiazan prywatno-prawnych. In: Glos Prawa 5 (1928), nos. 5-6, 18-33, here 19. See also the English translation: Succession of States with Respect to Private Law Obligations. In: Lauterpacht, Hersch: International Law. Collected Papers. Vol. 3: The Law of Peace. Pts. II-VI. Ed. by Elihu Lauterpacht (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977), 121-137, here 122. The translator was Krzysztof Skubiszewski, since 1963 lecturer in international law at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan and in 1971/72 visiting scholar in Oxford, who in 1989 became minister of foreign affairs in the democratically elected government of Tadeuz Mazowiecki.

[21] Rudnycki, Szymon: Ehrlich, Ludwik. In: The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe (http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Ehrlich_Ludwik); Ludwik Ehrlich. In: Wikipedia. Wolna encylopedia (http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwik_Ehrlich).

[22] Binder, H[arald]: Starzynski Stanislaw. In: Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815-1950. Vol. 13 (Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2007), 112-113 (http://www.biographien.ac.at/oebl/oebl_S/Starzynski_Stanislaw_1853_1935.xml); Redzik, Adam: Stanislaw Starzynski (1853–1935) a rozwój polskiej nauki prawa konstytucyjnego (Warsaw, Cracow: Instytut Allerhanda, 2012).

[23] Lemkin: Totally Unofficial, 20.

[24] Yahraes, Herbert: He Gave a Name to the World’s Most Horrible Crime. In: Collier’s, 3 March 1951, 28. Quoted by Cooper: Raphael Lemkin, 14-15.

[25] Lemkin, Raphael: Totally Unofficial Man. In: Totten, Samuel, Steven L. Jacobs, eds, Pioneers of Genocide Studies (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2002), 365-399, here 371.

[26] The biographic imprint in Lauterpacht’s thinking is stressed by Koskenniemi, Martti: Lauterpacht: the Victorian tradition in international law: In: Idem: The Gentle Civilizer of Nations. The Rise and Fall of International Law 1870-1960 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 353-412, here 412.

[27] Elder, Tanya: What You See before Your Eyes: Documenting Raphael Lemkin’s Life by Exploring His Archival Papers, 1900-1959. In: Journal of Genocide Research 7 (2005), 469-499, here 475.

[28] Kornat, Marek: Barbarity – Vandalism – Terrorism – Genocide. On Rafal Lemkin and the Idea of Defining ‘the Crime under the Law of Nations’. In: Polish Quarterly of International Affairs 2008, no. 2, 79-98. See also Kraft, Claudia: Völkermorde im 20. Jahrhundert. Rafal Lemkin und die Ahndung des Genozids durch das internationale Strafrecht. In: Hösler, Joachim, Wolfgang Kessler, eds, Finis mundi – Endzeiten und Weltenden im östlichen Europa (Stuttgart: F. Steiner Verlag, 1998), 91-110; eadem: Völkermord als delictum iuris gentium – Raphael Lemkins Vorarbeiten für eine Genozidkonvention. In: Jahrbuch des Simon-Dubnow-Instituts 4 (2005), 79-98; and eadem: Europa im Blick der polnischen Juristen. Rechtsordnung und juristische Profession in Polen im Spannungsfeld zwischen Nation und Europa 1918-1939 (Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 2002).

[29] Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s Broadcast to the World about the Meeting with President Roosevelt, August 24, 1941 (http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/timeline/410824awp.html).

[30] Lemkin: Totally Unofficial, 21. At the time, it was still unknown that the assassination was carried out on behalf of the Soviet GPU.

[31] Sands, Philippe: The Memory of Justice: The Unexpected Place of Lviv in International Law – A Personal History. In: Case Western Journal of International Law 43 (2011), 739-758, here 758. See also Sands’ Klatsky Lecture on the same topic at the Case Western Reserve School of Law of January 12, 2011, on Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxYTSbxm4fE.

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    Miklós Haraszti is a writer, journalist, human rights advocate and university professor. He served the maximum of two terms as the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media from 2004 to 2010. Currently he is Adjunct Professor at the School of International and Public Affairs of Columbia Law School, New York. Haraszti studied philosophy and …
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  • Sabine Hark

    Sabine Hark forscht an der Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Potsdam, Professur für Frauenforschung.   Print

  • Annemieke Hendriks

    Freelance journalist, Berlin
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  • Charles Hirschman

    Charles Hirschman is Boeing International Professor at the Department of Sociology and the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, Washington University.     Print

  • Jennifer L. Hochschild

    Jennifer L. Hochschild is Professor of Government at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, and Professor of African and African-American Studies at the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University.   Print

  • Yaroslav Hrytsak

    History, Central European University Budapest
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  • Richard Hyman

    Richard Hyman ist Professor für Politikwissenschaft an der London School of Economics.   Print

  • Vladislav Inozemtsev

    Professor of Economics at Higher School of Economics; Director, Centre for Post-Industrial Studies, Moscow
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  • Bruce P. Jackson

    Bruce P. Jackson is the founder and President of the Project on Transitional Democracies. The Project is a multi-year endeavour aimed at accelerating the pace of reform in post-1989 democracies and advancing the date for the integration of these democracies into the institutions of the Euro-Atlantic. Jackson has written extensively about the engagement of Russia …
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  • Tom Junes

    Visiting Researcher, Warsaw University, and Visiting Lecturer in Polish history, KULeuven, Belgium
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  • Alex J. Kay

    Alex J. Kay holds a PhD in History from the Humboldt University Berlin.   Print

  • Anatoly M. Khazanov

    Anatoly M. Khazanov ist Professor für Anthropologie an der University of Wisconsin, Madison.   Print

  • Cornelia Klinger

    Professor of Philosophy, University of Tübingen
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  • Gudrun-Axeli Knapp

    Professor of Social Sciences and Social Psychology, University of Hannover
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  • Jacek Kochanowicz

    Jacek Kochanowicz is Professor for Economic History at Warsaw University.       Print

  • Michal Kopecek

    International Relations, Charles University Prague
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  • János Kornai

    János Kornai is Prof. em. for Economics  at Harvard University and Permanent Fellow at the Collegium Budapest – Institute for Advanced Study. He is a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Academia Europeae, and Foreign Member of the American, British, Bulgarian, Finnish, Russian and Swedish Academies. He has served as President of …
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  • Bilyana Kourtasheva

    Post-Doc in Theory and History of Literature, New Bulgarian University, Sofia
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  • János Mátyás Kovács

    IWM Permanent Fellow
    Senior member of RECET, Institute of East European History, Vienna University; Professor of Economic History, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest
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  • Ivan Krastev

    IWM Permanent Fellow
    Chair of the Board, Centre for Liberal Strategies, Sofia
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  • Yustyna Kravchuk

    PhD candidate in Film and Media Studies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv
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  • Jacek Kucharczyk

    Jacek Kucharczyk ist Head of Programs am Institute of Public Affairs in Warschau.   Print

  • Aleksander Kwasniewski

    Aleksander Kwasniewski war Präsident Polens. Seine Amtszeit verlief von 1995 bis 2005 über zwei Legislaturperioden.   Print

  • Mladen Lazic

    Professor of Sociology, University of Belgrade
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  • Claus Leggewie

    Professor für Politikwissenschaft, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen
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  • Mark Leonard

    Co-founder and Director, European Council on Foreign Relations
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  • André Liebich

    Honorary Professor of International History and Politics, Graduate Institute, Geneva
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  • Burkhard Liebsch

    Burkhard Liebsch ist Professor für Philosophie an der Ruhr-Universität Bochum.   Print

  • Michal Luczewski

    Ph.D. candidate in Sociology, Warsaw University
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  • Charles S. Maier

    Charles S. Maier ist Direktor des Center for European Studies, Harvard University.   Print

  • Andrey Makarychev

    Andrey Makarychev ist Professor und Research Fellow am Institut Osteuropäische Studien an der Freien Universität Berlin.   Print

  • Michał Maciej Matlak

    Ph.D. candidate, Department of Political and Social Sciences, European University Institute, Florence
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  • Erik Meyer

    Erik Meyer ist seit 2000 wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Sonderforschungsbereich ‘Erinnerungskulturen’ an der Justus-Liebig Universität Gießen.   Print

  • Krzysztof Michalski

    IWM Founding Rector
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  • Hans J. Misselwitz

    Hans-Jürgen Misselwitz ist ein deutscher SPD-Politiker und Gründungsmitglied des Instituts Solidarische Moderne.   Print

  • Alessandro Monsutti

    Alessandro Monsutti is an associate professor of anthropology and development sociology at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, as well as research associate at the Refugee Studies Centre at the University of Oxford. He worked as a consultant for several nongovernmental and international organizations, icnluding UNHCR. His book War and Migration: Social Networks …
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  • Jan-Werner Müller

    Professor of Politics, Princeton University

    Visiting Fellow
    (September 2016 – August 2017)
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  • Rainer Münz

    Professor für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin; Korrespondierendes Mitglied des IWM
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  • Sighard Neckel

    Professor of Sociology, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main
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  • Katherine Newman

    Katherine S. Newman is the James B. Knapp Dean of The Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences. She is a widely published expert on poverty and the working poor who led major interdisciplinary initiatives at Princeton and Harvard universities.     Print

  • Pierre Nora

    Pierre Nora lehrt Geschichte an der École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) in Paris.   Print

  • Tereza Novotna

    Political Science, Boston University
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  • Ewald Nowotny

    Ewald Nowotny is Governor of the Austrian National Bank.   Print

  • Thomas Nowotny

    Thomas Nowotny teaches Political Science at the University of Vienna. He has been Austrian diplomat, private secretary to Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky, senior political counselor to the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and consultant to the OECD.   Print

  • Vlad Odobescu

    Freelance journalist, Romanian Centre for Investigative Journalism, Bucharest
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  • Andrzej Paczkowski

    Professor für Geschichte, Institut für Politische Studien, Polnische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Warschau
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  • Emilia Palonen

    Politics, University of Essex
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  • Irina Papkova

    Irina Papkova is a Research Fellow of Georgetown University’s Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. She spent five years teaching at the Department of International Relations and European Studies at Central European University, Budapest.   Print

  • Agnieszka Pasieka

    Ph.D. in Social Anthropology from the Martin Luther University, Halle/Saale
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  • Gleb Pavlovsky

    President, Center of Effective Policies; Member, Public Chamber of the Russian Federation; Editor-in-Chief, The Russian Journal, Moscow
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  • György Péteri

    Professor of Contemporary European History, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim
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  • Tanja Petrovic

    Tanja Petrovic works at the Scientific Research Center of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Ljubljana.   Print

  • David Petruccelli

    PhD candidate in History, Yale University
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  • Alexander von Plato

    Alexander von Plato ist ein deutscher Philosoph und Historiker. Er gründete das Instituts für Geschichte und Biographie an der Fernuniversität Hagen, das er bis 2007 leitete. Von 1996 bis 2000 war er Sekretär der International Oral History Association, von 2006 bis 2008 deren Vizepräsident. Er ist Mitherausgeber und Redakteur von BIOS – Zeitschrift für Biographieforschung, Oral …
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  • Andrei Pleșu

    Andrei Pleșu ist Rektor des New Europe College, Bukarest. 1989- 1991 war er rumänischer Kulturminister und 1997- 1999 rumänischer Außenminister.   Print

  • Martin Pollack

    Martin Pollack, geb. 1944 in OÖ, studierte Slawistik und osteuropäische Geschichte. Er war von 1987 bis 1998 Redakteur des “Spiegel” in Warschau und Wien und lebt heute als Schriftsteller und literarischer Übersetzer in Wien und Bocksdorf im Südburgenland. 2011 erhielt er den Leipziger Buchpreis zur Europäischen Verständigung und 2012 den Stanislaw-Vincenz-Preis. Zuletzt erschien von ihm …
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  • Krzysztof Pomian

    Krzysztof Pomian is Professor of History at the Nicolaus Copernicus University (Toruń) and Academic Director of the Museum of Europe in Brussels.   Print

  • Romano Prodi

    Romano Prodi war von September 1999 bis November 2004 Präsident der Europäischen Kommission.   Print

  • Lipin Ram

    PhD candidate and teaching assistant in Anthropology and Sociology of Development, Graduate Institute, Geneva
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  • Mykola Riabchuk

    Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Political and Nationalities’ Studies, Academy of Sciences, Kyiv
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  • Edelbert Richter

    Edelbert Richter ist deutscher Theologe, Politiker und war Mitglied des Deutschen Bundestages.   Print

  • Paul Ricoeur

    Paul Ricoeur ist Philosoph und war Professor Emeritus an der University of Chicago und an der Sorbonne. Er war Mitglied der Académie Francaise und Mitglied des Wissenschaftlichen Beirats des IWM. Er starb 2005.   Print

  • Michel Rocard

    Michel Rocard, former First Secretary of the French Socialist Party and a member of the European Parliament for 15 years, was Prime Minister of France from 1988 to 1991.   Print

  • Akos Rona-Tas

    Akos Rona-Tas is professor at the Sociology Department of the University of California, San Diego and a research associate at Met@risk, INRA, Paris. He is the author of the books Plastic Money: Constructing Markets for Credit Cards in Eight Postcommunist Countries (with Alya Guseva, 2014) and Surprise of the Small Transformation: Demise of Communism and …
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  • Lew Rubinstein

    Lew Rubinstein lebt als Poet und Essayist in Moskau. Nach dem Studium der Philologie war er als Bibliothekar tätig. Seit Ende der 1960er-Jahre verfasst er poetische Arbeiten, seit 1974 serielle Textzyklen als so genannte Kartotheken. Zusammen mit Andrej Monastyrskij, Dimitrij A. Prigov und Vladimir Sorokin gilt er als wichtigster Vertreter des Moskauer Konzeptualismus. Print

  • Jacques Rupnik

    Geschichte und Politikwissenschaft, Paris
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  • Claudia Šabic

    Claudia Šabi? ist Politikwissenschaftlerin und Ethnologin. Seit 1998 ist sie Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin an der Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main. Print

  • Ranabir Samaddar

    Distinguished Chair in Migration and Forced Migration Studies, Calcutta Research Group
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  • Paul Sanders

    Paul Sanders is a historian and management scholar. He is a full-time professor at Reims Management School in Reims, France. He has published across the disciplines of history, international relations and leadership.   Print

  • Karl Schlögel

    Karl Schlögel war Professor für Osteuropäische Geschichte zuerst an der Universität Konstanz, dann an der Europa-Universität Viadrina in Frankfurt/Oder. Nach seiner Emeritierung arbeitet er an einer Archäologie des Kommunismus und einer Geschichte des Wolgaraumes. Zurzeit ist er City of Vienna/IFK Fellow am IFK in Wien.     Print

  • Thomas Schmid

    Thomas Schmid is the publisher of the WELT Group, Berlin. He worked for various newspapers, among them as editor of the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and the Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung. From 2006 to 2010 he was Editor-in-Chief of Die Welt.   Print

  • Margit Schratzenstaller

    Margit Schratzenstaller is senior researcher at the Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO) and is currently coordinating (together with Karl Aiginger and Stefan Ederer) ‘WWW for Europe’, a 4-year research project within the 7th Framework Program funded by the European Commission.   Print

  • Dieter Segert

    Dieter Segert ist Professor für Transformationsprozesse in Mittel-, Südost- und Osteuropa am Institut für Politikwissenschaft der Universität Wien. Seit September 2007 ist er Mitglied des Vorstandes des IDM Wien, seit Juni 2008 Mitglied der Leibniz-Sozietät der Wissenschaften zu Berlin.   Print

  • Victoriya Sereda

    Sociologie, Ivan-Franko-Universität, Lviv
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  • Michel Serres

    Michel Serres ist Philosoph und Mitglied der Académie Française.   Print

  • Anton Shekhovtsov

    PhD in Political Science
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  • Marci Shore

    Associate Professor of History, Yale University

    Visiting Fellow
    (July 2020 – June 2021)
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  • Sławomir Sierakowski

    Director, Institute for Advanced Study, Warsaw; Founder, "Krytyka Polityczna" movement
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  • Sara Silverstein

    Ph.D. Candidate in Modern European and International History, Yale University
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  • Ondřej Slačálek

    Assistant Professor of Political Science, Charles University, Prague
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  • Aleksander Smolar

    Political Science, Paris
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  • Timothy Snyder

    IWM Permanent Fellow
    Richard C. Levin Professor of History, Yale University
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  • George Soros

    George Soros is a pioneer of the hedge-fund industry, investor and philanthropist, he is the author of many books, including Financial Turmoil in Europe and the United States: Essays (2012), The Soros Lectures: At the Central European University (2010), The Crash of 2008 and What it Means: The New Paradigm for Finance Markets (2009).   …
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  • Robert Spaemann

    Robert Spaemann ist Professor em. für Philosophie an der Universität München.   Print

  • Pawel Spiewak

    Associate Professor of Sociology, Department of Sociology and Philosophy, Warsaw University
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  • Wilfried Stadler

    Wilfried Stadler ist Unternehmensberater, Wirtschaftspublizist und Honorarprofessor an der Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien. Bis 2009 war er Vorstandsvorsitzender einer österreichischen Spezialbank für Unternehmensfinanzierung.   Print

  • Rudolf Stamm

    Rudolf Stamm war von 1975 bis 1988 Korrespondent der Neuen Zürcher Zeitung für Osteuropa und Österreich, anschließend bis 1999 für Italien, dann bis zu seiner Pensionierung 2002 für die USA mit Sitz in Washington D.C. Er starb 2010 in der Schweiz. 1985 erscheinen seine NZZ-Reportagen aus Osteuropa in dem Band Alltag und Tradition in Osteuropa. …
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  • Paul Starr

    Paul Starr ist Professor für Soziologie an der Princeton University und Mitherausgeber von The American Prospect. Er ist Pulitzer-Preisträger.   Print

  • Martina Steer

    ÖAW APART Fellow (History)
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  • Kristina Stoeckl

    Research Director
    APART Fellow, Austrian Academy of Sciences; Department of Political Sciences, University of Vienna
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  • Roman Szporluk

    Roman Szporluk is Professor em. of Ukrainian History at Harvard and Professor em. of History at the University of Michigan. He is a foreign member of the National Academy of Sciences in Kiev, Ukraine. His research focuses on modern Ukrainian, Russian, and Polish history, and on Marxism and nationalism in Eastern Europe.   Print

  • Charles Taylor

    IWM Permanent Fellow
    Professor em. of Philosophy, McGill University, Montréal
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  • Maria Teteriuk

    PhD candidate in Mass Communications and senior lecturer in Media Studies, National University of 'Kyiv-Mohyla Academy', Ukraine
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  • Philipp Ther

    Junior Professor of Polish and Ukrainian Studies, Europa-Universität Frankfurt / Oder
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  • Maria Todorova

    Professor of History, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
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  • Balázs Trencsényi

    Balázs Trencsényi, Ph.D., is Associate Professor at the Department of History, CEU. His research focuses on the comparative history of political thought in East Central Europe and the history of historiography. He is co-director of Pasts, Inc., Center for Historical Studies at CEU and Associate Editor of the periodical East Central Europe (Brill). He was …
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  • Stefan Troebst

    Read more

  • Marius Turda

    Lecturer in the Education Abroad Program, Eötvös Lorand University, Faculty of Humanities, Budapest
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  • Andreas Umland

    Andreas Umland ist Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Institut für Euro-Atlantische Kooperation Kiew sowie Herausgeber der Buchreihe Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society, ibidem-Verlag Stuttgart. Print

  • Victoria Vasilenko

    Assistant Professor of Contemporary History and International Relations, Belgorod National Research University
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  • David G. Victor

    David G. Victor is a Professor at the School of International Relations and Pacific Studies at the University of California, San Diego, where he directs the Laboratory on International Law and Regulation.   Print

  • Harald Welzer

    Harald Welzer ist Forschungsprofessor für Sozialpsychologie an der Universität Witten/Herdecke und Direktor des Center for Interdisciplinary Memory Research am Kulturwissenschaftlichen Instituts Essen.   Print

  • Karolina Wigura

    Adjunct of the History of Ideas, University of Warsaw; Co-Editor of Kultura Liberalna
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  • Volodymyr Yermolenko

    Volodymyr Yermolenko is a Ukrainian philosopher and essayist. He has a degree in Political Science from the EHESS, Paris, and teaches at Kyiv Mohyla Academy in Kyiv. He is the author of the book Narrator and Philosopher: Walter Benjamin and his time (2011, in Ukrainian). Print

  • Oksana Zabuzhko

    Free-lance writer, Kiev
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  • Tatiana Zhurzhenko

    IWM Research Director, Russia in Global Dialogue and Ukraine in European Dialogue
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