Brothers – The SS Mass Murderer and the Concentration Camp Inmate

We know relatively little about intra-familial ruptures in National Socialist Germany. Most well researched are the divorces of Jewish-non-Jewish marriages, many of which were brought about by means of coercive measures.[1] But what about those non-Jewish families whose individual members found themselves on opposite sides of the political divide? Were there, for example, cases of National Socialists and communists or social democrats within the same family? This article is concerned with a case study that can be described as unique: an SS officer whose older brother was a political prisoner of the Nazis. What’s more: the SS officer was the first head of SS Einsatzkommando 9, which under his leadership murdered many thousands of Jews during the German invasion of the Soviet Union, whilst his older brother was an inmate of Buchenwald concentration camp and did not survive the war. The contrasts could not be starker.

Divergent Career Paths

Kay_A_Filbert

Alfred Filbert

The Filbert brothers, who are the subject of this article, were both born in Darmstadt in the then Grand Duchy of Hesse, Otto on 10 May 1904 and Karl Wilhelm Alfred, known as Alfred, on 8 September 1905.[2] Their father was a career soldier and company sergeant major. After obtaining his secondary school certificate, Alfred began an apprenticeship at the Commerz- und Privatbank in Mannheim on 1 April 1922. The blockade of the bridges across the river in the French-occupied Rhineland caused him to discontinue his apprenticeship in Mannheim and instead complete it at the Rheinische Kreditbank in Worms. Following the completion of his apprenticeship, Alfred was unable to find employment in a bank due to the prevailing economic crisis. After a stint helping out in the tax office in Worms, he decided to return to school in order to sit his school-leaving examinations so as to be hired afterwards by the tax office as a salaried employee. After attending a private school in Mainz for a year and a half, he sat his school-leaving examinations at Easter 1927.[3] Instead of seeking employment at the tax office, his father allowed him to study law at university. He enrolled for the summer semester 1927 at the Hessian Regional University in Giessen, where he passed the First Legal State Exam with the overall grade of “sufficient” at the end of December 1933 and became a Doctor of Laws in February 1935 with a thesis on bankruptcy law.[4]

Kay_O_Filbert

Otto Filbert

Otto took a very different path, both professionally and in his life in general. In April 1926, aged not yet 22 years, he immigrated to the United States of America, where he became an engineer at the Pullman Works in Philadelphia. In 1933 he married Wilhelmina Koskamp, who was also German and had immigrated to the USA only two months after Otto.[5] Otto’s parents persuaded him to come back to Germany in 1938 with his wife and their two sons on a one-year trial basis. Unable to adapt to the new way of life in Nazi Germany, Otto resolved to return to the United States. As he was still a German citizen, however, he was refused permission to emigrate. Following the failure of the assassination attempt on Hitler’s life made by Georg Elser on 8 November 1939, out of bitterness Otto commented to a colleague at the Junkers Aircraft Factory in Dessau: “Pity that the scoundrel didn’t perish.” Denounced by his colleague, Otto was promptly arrested by the Magdeburg Gestapo and sentenced to four years imprisonment for “malice”, although he did not have any previous convictions.[6]

Nazi Career and Mass Murder

At the time of the arrest of his brother in November 1939, Alfred Filbert held the SS rank equivalent to a lieutenant colonel and was deputy head of Office VI (SD Overseas) in the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA). How had this come about? Already during his university studies he had joined the Nazi movement. On 23 August 1932 he had joined the SS in Worms and a few days later the NSDAP. The head of his SS sub-unit wrote about him in an appraisal from October 1933: “During the heavy fighting on Shrove Tuesday of this year he was in the front line.”[7] After passing the First Legal State Exam at the end of 1933, he had admittedly commenced his legal traineeship for junior lawyers at the end of January 1934, but as early as October 1934 he had successfully applied for leave from the traineeship. At the same time he had applied to the Security Service (SD) of the Reichsführer-SS and been appointed as a full-time employee in the SD Main Office in Berlin on 1 March 1935. After extending his leave several times, he was permanently discharged from the legal traineeship at his own request in November 1938.[8]

How did the arrest and conviction of his only brother impact both professionally and personally on Alfred Filbert? His rapid ascent within the SD apparatus came to a halt. In spite of five promotions in the SS within the space of two and a half years up to the end of January 1939, he would not be promoted again.[9] This halt to promotions was clearly a result of the arrest of his brother. Although Alfred had allegedly visited his brother on several occasions in Dessau Prison,[10] the fate of his brother led in no way to a practical or even an internal rejection of National Socialism. On the contrary: in spring 1941 Alfred volunteered for the forthcoming deployment of SS Einsatzgruppen in the campaign against the Soviet Union. He was commissioned with the command of Einsatzkommando 9 within Einsatzgruppe B in the central operations zone of the eastern front.[11] During his four-month stint in the east, he proved to be one of the most radical executors of the genocide of Soviet Jewry. His commando was the very first to commence with the systematic murder of women and children at the end of July 1941.[12] By the time he returned to Berlin on 20 October 1941 his commando had killed more than 16,000 Jews in Lithuania and Belarus.[13] It was as if, in response to the imprisonment of his brother, he wanted with his zeal to prove to the RSHA and SS leaderships his commitment to the National Socialist cause and his ideological reliability.

House Arrest – Concentration Camp

Although in the eyes of the regime he had distinguished himself exceptionally in the east, upon his return to Berlin Alfred Filbert was accused of embezzlement and bribery. He had supposedly kept back 60,000 Reich marks in foreign currency in his office safe for his own personal use. It was furthermore claimed that he had taken out a dubious loan for the purchase of a house in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee. The interest rate agreed on for the mortgage was supposedly half a per cent lower than the rate generally applied. An SS court in Berlin initiated proceedings against him and he was suspended from duty in the RSHA.[14] At the end of 1941 the two brothers, despite their very different prehistories, found themselves in not dissimilar situations: Otto was still in Dessau Prison and Alfred was under house arrest. This constellation lasted for approximately two years. By the end of 1943, however, the deck would be thoroughly reshuffled.

In December 1943 things turned even worse for Otto Filbert. After he had served his four-year sentence, he was admittedly released from Dessau Prison, though not allowed to return home: instead he landed in Buchenwald concentration camp near Weimar. He was delivered there on 6 December by the Magdeburg Gestapo as a “political prisoner”.[15] A few weeks earlier Alfred Filbert had been completely rehabilitated following his two-year suspension from duty and reappointed to the RSHA, though not to SD Overseas, as before, but to the Reich Criminal Police Office.[16] There he again served under Arthur Nebe, his former superior with Einsatzgruppe B. The accusations against him were probably baseless, which is why there is no entry in the box “SS penalties” in his SS personnel file. It is far more likely that he was suspended because of his longstanding association with Werner Best and Heinz Jost, both of whom also came from Hesse and had fallen out of favour with Reinhard Heydrich.

War Merit Cross – Penal Unit

On 4 July 1944 Alfred Filbert was promoted to the head of the newly created group Economic Crime within the criminal police.[17] This appointment was somewhat ironic in view of the charges brought against him less than three years earlier of misappropriation of funds and bribery. Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler furthermore conferred on him the War Merit Cross 1st Class with Swords on 12 September.[18] Alfred Filbert had evidently succeeded in regaining the favour of the RSHA and SS leaderships since his suspension from duty.

Things were very different for his brother. On 28 November 1944 Otto’s wife, Wilhelmina, received what would be her final message from her husband. On the same day Otto was released from Buchenwald concentration camp but transferred to the notorious SS Storm Brigade Dirlewanger.[19] Over the former concentration camp inmates, who had been recruited by force, the commander of the unit, SS Lieutenant Colonel Dirlewanger was permitted to exert power over life and death, even in non-combat situations. Following rudimentary military training, the political concentration camp inmates were sent with the rest of the unit to the Hungarian front. During the course of hostilities, almost five hundred of the political prisoners succeeded in deserting to the advancing Red Army.[20] Whether Otto was among the deserters can no longer be determined. It is just as likely that he had already fallen victim to the brutal treatment within the unit or the hostilities. In any case, he never returned to his family. On 16 May 1951, Otto’s widow applied to the relevant court for him to be declared dead as of 28 November 1944. On 15 October the local court in Bottrop declared Otto Filbert dead and – in the absence of more exact data – gave the evidently fictitious date and time of death as midnight on 31 December 1945.[21]

Disappearance, Reintegration and Prosecution

At the end of the war Alfred Filbert succeeded in going into hiding and lived until April 1951 under the false name “Alfred Selbert” in the town of Bad Gandersheim in Lower Saxony.[22] This period was then followed by a sixth-month stay with his sister in Mannheim, after which Filbert moved to Hanover, where he was able to make use of his commercial expertise to obtain a job with the Braunschweig-Hannoversche Hypothekenbank. Two years later his wife Käthe and their two sons joined him and they lived together in Hanover. Filbert quickly climbed the career ladder with the bank and was appointed manager of its West Berlin branch on 1 January 1958.[23]

For a little over a year he was able to enjoy this new ascent. On 25 February 1959, at 7 o’clock in the morning, Alfred Filbert was arrested in his apartment at Bamberger Strasse no. 49 in Berlin-Schöneberg by two members of the West Berlin criminal police. On the next day he was charged with the murder of an unknown number of people of Soviet citizenship.[24] Twenty-eight months later, after an eighteen-day trial, the Regional Court in Berlin sentenced Filbert on 22 June 1962, twenty-one years to the day since the German invasion of the Soviet Union, to life imprisonment for murder. The court concluded that Filbert had acted “from base motives and with forethought” and furthermore that he had “striven to have shot all Jews he could possibly get hold of and that he acted inhumanely towards the Jews”.[25] On 9 April 1963 the West German Federal Supreme Court rejected Filbert’s appeal and thus confirmed the verdict against him as legally binding.[26]

In light of the judgement passed against him, the Justus Liebig University in Giessen stripped Filbert of his Doctor of Laws title on 15 January 1964.[27] Filbert vainly lodged an objection to the decision. In his four-and-a-half-page statement he portrayed himself as a victim of the regime. Due to the arrest of his brother by the Gestapo, Himmler had decreed “in the context of kin liability first of all a halt to promotions, surveillance and in 1941 deactivation from my duties and the takeover of a task force in the Russian campaign”. As a result of his “particularly difficult position owing to my brother” he allegedly had to carry out the orders. He concluded by counting himself among those who had suffered grave injustice at the hands of the Nazi regime: “The great injustice of the time, under which my family also had to suffer, will not be rectified by committing further injustice.”[28] All this self-pity was of no use; his doctor title remained revoked.

As early as thirteen years after the judgement of the Regional Court in Berlin, the enforcement of the custodial sentence against Filbert was suspended. Following an examination, an eye specialist concluded that under the prevailing circumstances Filbert was threatened with blindness in the near future. On 5 June 1975 he was released from Berlin’s Tegel Prison.[29]

“My brother was in Buchenwald and he is dead”

The almost seventy-eight-year old Filbert demonstrated his physical fitness in summer 1983 during the shooting of the feature film Gun Wound – Execution for Four Voices. Thomas Harlan, the son of Veit Harlan, the most prominent film director of the Nazi period, directed, whilst Filbert appeared in the lead role of the SS mass murderer “Dr S” and thus effectively played himself – Filbert had gone into hiding after the war under the name “Dr Selbert”. The film was premiered at the Venice International Film Festival in August 1984 together with the documentary film Our Nazi by the American director Robert Kramer, which had been shot simultaneously to document the making of Gun Wound.

At one point in Our Nazi the viewer sees how Harlan initiates a conversation with Filbert concerning a massacre of one hundred Jewish men in Belarus in August 1941, which Filbert had personally led. Harlan remarks that two men succeeded in fleeing the shooters of the task force and escaping. The viewer sees how Harlan briefs a group of six Jewish men. Filbert denies to Harlan his participation in the massacre and refuses to discuss the matter further. He stands up and attempts to leave the film set; a physical confrontation ensues. Filbert is confronted by the men briefed by Harlan, Holocaust survivors, one of whom may or may not be one of those who fled the massacre. One of the men shows Filbert a tattoo on his arm, which he says is from Auschwitz, where his entire family was murdered. Filbert replies: “My brother was in Buchenwald and he is dead.”[30]

It was not the first time during the shooting of Gun Wound that Filbert had presented himself as a victim on account of the fate of his brother. On another occasion he explained his imprisonment not as a result of the atrocities he had committed in Lithuania and Belarus but instead as a result of his brother expressing regret at the failure of the attempt on Hitler’s life in November 1939: “I had to as a result of my brother, as a result of this statement [following the attempt on Hitler’s life], I had to sit in prison for 18 [sic] years. I lost my eyesight in the process, I lost my honour, the nervous strain. Yes, thanks a lot!” In Filbert’s eyes, it was “a crime under constraint”. On another occasion he weeps whilst talking about the fate of his brother. It initially appears to the viewer that Filbert’s show of emotion is on account of the suffering and death of his brother, before it becomes clear that he is in fact weeping – at least in part – for himself and his damaged career in the SS: “I naturally suffered a lot from this.”[31]

The fate of his brother became a constant and crucial factor in Filbert’s post-war portrayal of himself as a victim. Not only his self-portrayal but also his self-perception appears to have been decisively and lastingly shaped by the incarceration and death of his brother. He did not regard himself as a perpetrator but as a victim, who through no fault of his own found himself in a hopeless situation with no way out and was forced to commit terrible deeds. In Filbert’s case, the decision and motivation for partaking in mass murder, which occurred after the imprisonment of his brother, are thus particularly illuminating. Alfred Filbert died on 1 August 1990 in Berlin at the age of 84 years. His two sons live in Berlin and Stuttgart, respectively. They have close contact to the sons of their uncle Otto.[32]

 

 

Alex J. Kay holds a PhD in Modern and Contemporary History from the Humboldt University, Berlin. He is author of Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, 1940–1941 (Berghahn 2006, paperback edition 2011) and contributing co-editor of Nazi Policy on the Eastern Front, 1941: Total War, Genocide, and Radicalization (University of Rochester Press 2012). He received the Journal of Contemporary History‘s George L. Mosse Prize for 2006. In 2008 he presented at a conference at the IWM as part of the United Europe – Divided Memory project.

© Author / Transit 2013


[1] The essential work on this topic is Beate Meyer, “Jüdische Mischlinge”. Rassenpolitik und Verfolgungserfahrung 1933–1945, Hamburg 1999.

[2] Birth certificates of Otto Filbert and Karl Wilhelm Alfred Filbert, in: Archiv des Standesamtes Darmstadt, Geburtenregister Darmstadt, no. 666 and no. 1169.

[3] Race and settlement questionnaire from 11 January 1937, RuSHA file Dr Alfred Filbert, in: Bundesarchiv Berlin-Lichterfelde (hereafter BArch Berlin), VBS 283/6010010064; Hearing of the accused Dr Alfred Filbert in the criminal case against Dr Alfred Filbert for murder before the Regional Court in Berlin on 14 January 1960, in: Landesarchiv Berlin (hereafter LArch Berlin), B Rep. 058, Nr. 7168, fols. 39–45R, here fol. 39R.

[4] Hearing of Dr Alfred Filbert on 14 January 1960, in: LArch Berlin, B Rep. 058, Nr. 7168, fols. 39–45R, here fol. 40; Student file Alfred Filbert, in: Universitätsarchiv Gießen (hereafter UniA GI), Matrikelakten des Studierendensekretariats, Stud. Mat. Nr. 5493; Attestation of the legal examining authority in Giessen from 20 December 1933, in: Hessisches Staatsarchiv Darmstadt (hereafter HStAD), G 21 B, Personalakte Nr. 2862; Alfred Filbert, Kann das Ablehnungsrecht des Konkursverwalters des Vorbehaltsverkäufers mit der Anwartschaft des Käufers auf den Eigentumserwerb ausgeräumt werden? (Giessen: Buchdruckerei Meyer, 1935), Thesis for obtaining a doctorate from the Law Faculty of the Hessian Ludwig University in Giessen, in: UniA GI, Promotionen und Dissertationen an der Universität Gießen von 1894 bis 1945, Jur. Prom. Nr. 775.

[5] New York, Passenger Lists, 1820–1957 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010; Hearing of Dr Alfred Filbert on 14 January 1960, in: LArch Berlin, B Rep. 058, Nr. 7168, fols. 39–45R, here fol. 41R; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Marriage Index, 1885-1951 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011.

[6] Hearing of Dr Alfred Filbert on 14 January 1960, in: LArch Berlin, B Rep. 058, Nr. 7168, fols. 39–45R, here fols. 41R–42; Prisoner personal form (Doc. ID # 5856618), in: International Tracing Service Archives, Bad Arolsen (hereafter ITS Archives), 1.1.5.3 KZ Buchenwald.

[7] SSO file Dr Alfred Filbert, in: BArch Berlin, VBS 286/6400010138; Membership card of the local branch of the NSDAP, in: BArch Berlin, MF-OK-32/E0045, fol. 1819; Letter from the head of the SS Storm 4/II/33 to the SS soldier Alfred Filbert from 19 October 1933, in: HStAD, G 21 B, Personalakte Nr. 2862.

[8] Letter from the Hessian State Ministry regarding the faculty examination of the law candidate Alfred Filbert from Worms and his application for admission to the legal traineeship from 23 January 1934, in: HStAD, G 21 B, Personalakte Nr. 2862; Letter from the President of the Higher Regional Court regarding the traineeship of the junior lawyer Alfred Filbert from Worms, dated 30 October 1934, in: HStAD, G 21 B, Personalakte Nr. 2862; Curriculum vitae from 27 January 1937, SSO file Dr Alfred Filbert, in: BArch Berlin, VBS 286/6400010138; Letter from the President of the Higher Regional Court regarding the legal trainee Dr Alfred Filbert, dated 18 November 1938, in HStAD, G 21 B, Personalakte Nr. 2862.

[9] Cf. SSO file Dr Alfred Filbert, in: BArch Berlin, VBS 286/6400010138.

[10] Hearing of Dr Alfred Filbert on 14 January 1960, in: LArch Berlin, B Rep. 058, Nr. 7168, fols. 39–45R, here fol. 42R.

[11] Hearing of the witness Alfred Filbert during the preliminary court proceedings against Bruno Streckenbach on 23 September 1971, in: Staatsarchiv Hamburg (hereafter StA Hamburg), 213–12, Nr. 33, Bd. 16, fols. 7563–7572, here fols. 7564–7565.

[12] On this see Alex J. Kay, “Transition to Genocide, July 1941: Einsatzkommando 9 and the Annihilation of Soviet Jewry”, in: Holocaust and Genocide Studies, vol. 27, no. 3 (winter 2013) [in press].

[13] For the calculations see Alex J. Kay, Ideology and Narcissism: The Life of SS Colonel Alfred Filbert, 1905–1990. The study is close to completion.

[14] Hearing of Dr Alfred Filbert on 14 May 1959, in: LArch Berlin, B Rep. 058, Nr. 7166, fols. 194–206, here fol. 198; Hearing of Alfred Filbert on 23 September 1971, in: StA Hamburg, 213–12, Nr. 33, Bd. 16, fols. 7563–7572, here fols. 7568 und 7572; Hearing of the witness Heinz Jost in the criminal case against Dr Alfred Filbert et al. for murder before the Regional Court in Berlin on 20 February 1961, in: LArch Berlin, B Rep. 058, Nr. 7179, fols. 241–243, here fol. 242R.

[15] Prisoner personal card (Doc. ID # 5856617) and Prisoner personal form (Doc. ID # 5856618), both in: ITS Archives, 1.1.5.3 KZ Buchenwald.

[16] Hearing of Alfred Filbert on 25 February 1959, in: LArch Berlin, B Rep. 058, Nr. 7166, fols. 28–31R, here fol. 30R; Hearing of the witness Karl Schulz on 2 April 1959, in: LArch Berlin, B Rep. 058, Nr. 7166, fols. 77–81, here fol. 81.

[17] Letter from the head of Office V regarding Group V Wi, dated 4 July 1944, in: BArch Berlin, R 58/240, fols. 218–219.

[18] Memorandum from 22 November 1944, SSO file Dr Alfred Filbert, in: BArch Berlin, VBS 286/6400010138.

[19] List of names for deployment with the Dirlewanger formation, dated 21 November 1944 (Doc. ID # 5343397) and Announcement of change from 28 November 1944 (Doc. ID # 5283886), both in: ITS Archives, 1.1.5.1 KZ Buchenwald.

[20] Hellmuth Auerbach, “Die Einheit Dirlewanger”, in: Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, vol. 10, no. 3 (July 1962), pp. 250–263, here pp. 259–261; Hans-Peter Klausch, Antifaschisten in SS-Uniform. Schicksal und Widerstand der deutschen politschen KZ-Häftlinge, Zuchthaus- und Wehrmachtsgefangenen in der SS-Sonderformation Dirlewanger, Bremen 1993, pp. 194–195, 257 and 262–263.

[21] Official declaration of death by the Local Court in Bottrop from 15 October 1951.

[22] Family card Dr Alfred Selbert, in: Einwohnermeldearchiv der Stadt Bad Gandersheim; Registration card Dr Alfred Filbert, in: Stadtarchiv Mannheim – Institut für Stadtgeschichte. An incorrect date (1950) is given in Michael Wildt, Generation des Unbedingten. Das Führungskorps des Reichssicherheitshauptamtes, Hamburg 2002, p. 819.

[23] Registration card Dr Alfred Filbert, in: Stadtarchiv Mannheim – Institut für Stadtgeschichte; Registration card Dr Alfred Filbert, in: Einwohnermeldearchiv der Stadt Hannover; Hearing of Dr Alfred Filbert on 25 February 1959, in: LArch Berlin, B Rep. 058, Nr. 7166, fols. 28–32R, here fol. 31; Registration card Käthe Filbert, in: Einwohnermeldearchiv der Stadt Bad Gandersheim.

[24] Note of the Berlin criminal police from 26 February 1959, in: LArch Berlin, B Rep. 058, Nr. 7166, fols. 27–27R, here fol. 27R; Charges brought by the President of Police in Berlin on 26 February 1959, in: LArch Berlin, B Rep. 058, Nr. 7166, fol. 1.

[25] Judgement of the Assize Court attached to the Regional Court in Berlin, 3 P (K) Ks 1/62, from 22 June 1962, in: UniA GI, Promotionen und Dissertationen an der Universität Gießen von 1894 bis 1945, Jur. Prom. Nr. 775, fols. 36–159, here fols. 38–39, 106, 120 and 146.

[26] Judgement of the Federal Supreme Court, 5 StR 22/63, from 9 April 1963, in: Bundesarchiv Außenstelle Ludwigsburg, B 162/14138.

[27] Minutes of the session of the Committee for the Withdrawal of Academic Degrees at the Justus Liebig University in Giessen from 15 January 1964, in: UniA GI, Promotionen und Dissertationen an der Universität Gießen von 1894 bis 1945, Jur. Prom. Nr. 775, fol. 32.

[28] Letter from Alfred Filbert to the Justus Liebig University from 2 March 1964 regarding the revocation of his doctorate, in: UniA GI, Promotionen und Dissertationen an der Universität Gießen von 1894 bis 1945, Jur. Prom. Nr. 775, fols. 23–27.

[29] Expert opinion by the eye specialist for eye diseases Dr Ladeburg to the director of Tegel Prison, dated 15 May 1975, in: LArch Berlin, B Rep. 005, Nr. 584/1, fol. 75; Notification of release from the director of Tegel Prison to the Public Prosecutor’s Office in Berlin, dated 5 June 1975, in: LArch Berlin, B Rep. 058, Nr. 7218, fol. 81.

[30] Notre Nazi (France/FRG: Reass Films/Quasar Film, 1984), directed by Robert Kramer, 01:34:41–01:45:05.

[31] Notre Nazi, 01:31:09–01:31:29, 01:33:46–01:33:52 and 01:18:58–01:23:16.

[32] Written notification from Dieter Filbert, Berlin, 17 and 31 March 2013.

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    Sabine Hark forscht an der Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Potsdam, Professur für Frauenforschung.   Print

  • Annemieke Hendriks

    Freelance journalist, Berlin
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  • Charles Hirschman

    Charles Hirschman is Boeing International Professor at the Department of Sociology and the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, Washington University.     Print

  • Jennifer L. Hochschild

    Jennifer L. Hochschild is Professor of Government at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, and Professor of African and African-American Studies at the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University.   Print

  • Yaroslav Hrytsak

    History, Central European University Budapest
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  • Richard Hyman

    Richard Hyman ist Professor für Politikwissenschaft an der London School of Economics.   Print

  • Vladislav Inozemtsev

    Professor of Economics at Higher School of Economics; Director, Centre for Post-Industrial Studies, Moscow
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  • Bruce P. Jackson

    Bruce P. Jackson is the founder and President of the Project on Transitional Democracies. The Project is a multi-year endeavour aimed at accelerating the pace of reform in post-1989 democracies and advancing the date for the integration of these democracies into the institutions of the Euro-Atlantic. Jackson has written extensively about the engagement of Russia …
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  • Tom Junes

    Visiting Researcher, Warsaw University, and Visiting Lecturer in Polish history, KULeuven, Belgium
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  • Alex J. Kay

    Alex J. Kay holds a PhD in History from the Humboldt University Berlin.   Print

  • Anatoly M. Khazanov

    Anatoly M. Khazanov ist Professor für Anthropologie an der University of Wisconsin, Madison.   Print

  • Cornelia Klinger

    Professor of Philosophy, University of Tübingen
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  • Gudrun-Axeli Knapp

    Professor of Social Sciences and Social Psychology, University of Hannover
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  • Jacek Kochanowicz

    Jacek Kochanowicz is Professor for Economic History at Warsaw University.       Print

  • Michal Kopecek

    International Relations, Charles University Prague
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  • János Kornai

    János Kornai is Prof. em. for Economics  at Harvard University and Permanent Fellow at the Collegium Budapest – Institute for Advanced Study. He is a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Academia Europeae, and Foreign Member of the American, British, Bulgarian, Finnish, Russian and Swedish Academies. He has served as President of …
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  • Pavel Kouba

    Professor für Philosophie an der Karlsuniversität, Prag; Leiter des Zentrums für Phänomenologische Forschung an der Tschechischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
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  • János Mátyás Kovács

    IWM Permanent Fellow
    Lecturer, Department of Economics, Eötvös Lorand University, Budapest
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  • Ivan Krastev

    IWM Permanent Fellow
    Chair of the Board, Centre for Liberal Strategies, Sofia
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  • Yustyna Kravchuk

    PhD candidate in Film and Media Studies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv
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  • Jacek Kucharczyk

    Jacek Kucharczyk ist Head of Programs am Institute of Public Affairs in Warschau.   Print

  • Aleksander Kwasniewski

    Aleksander Kwasniewski war Präsident Polens. Seine Amtszeit verlief von 1995 bis 2005 über zwei Legislaturperioden.   Print

  • Mladen Lazic

    Professor of Sociology, University of Belgrade
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  • Claus Leggewie

    Professor für Politikwissenschaft, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen
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  • André Liebich

    Honorary Professor of International History and Politics, Graduate Institute, Geneva
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  • Burkhard Liebsch

    Burkhard Liebsch ist Professor für Philosophie an der Ruhr-Universität Bochum.   Print

  • Michal Luczewski

    Ph.D. candidate in Sociology, Warsaw University
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  • Charles S. Maier

    Charles S. Maier ist Direktor des Center for European Studies, Harvard University.   Print

  • Andrey Makarychev

    Andrey Makarychev ist Professor und Research Fellow am Institut Osteuropäische Studien an der Freien Universität Berlin.   Print

  • Michał Maciej Matlak

    Ph.D. candidate, Department of Political and Social Sciences, European University Institute, Florence
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  • Erik Meyer

    Erik Meyer ist seit 2000 wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Sonderforschungsbereich ‘Erinnerungskulturen’ an der Justus-Liebig Universität Gießen.   Print

  • Krzysztof Michalski

    IWM Founding Rector
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  • Hans J. Misselwitz

    Hans-Jürgen Misselwitz ist ein deutscher SPD-Politiker und Gründungsmitglied des Instituts Solidarische Moderne.   Print

  • Alessandro Monsutti

    Alessandro Monsutti is an associate professor of anthropology and development sociology at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, as well as research associate at the Refugee Studies Centre at the University of Oxford. He worked as a consultant for several nongovernmental and international organizations, icnluding UNHCR. His book War and Migration: Social Networks …
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  • Jan-Werner Müller

    Professor of Politics, Princeton University

    Visiting Fellow
    (September 2016 – June 2017)
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  • Rainer Münz

    Professor für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin; Korrespondierendes Mitglied des IWM
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  • Sighard Neckel

    Professor of Sociology, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main
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  • Katherine Newman

    Katherine S. Newman is the James B. Knapp Dean of The Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences. She is a widely published expert on poverty and the working poor who led major interdisciplinary initiatives at Princeton and Harvard universities.     Print

  • Pierre Nora

    Pierre Nora lehrt Geschichte an der École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) in Paris.   Print

  • Tereza Novotna

    Political Science, Boston University
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  • Ewald Nowotny

    Ewald Nowotny is Governor of the Austrian National Bank.   Print

  • Thomas Nowotny

    Thomas Nowotny teaches Political Science at the University of Vienna. He has been Austrian diplomat, private secretary to Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky, senior political counselor to the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and consultant to the OECD.   Print

  • Vlad Odobescu

    Freelance journalist, Romanian Centre for Investigative Journalism, Bucharest
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  • Andrzej Paczkowski

    Professor für Geschichte, Institut für Politische Studien, Polnische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Warschau
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  • Emilia Palonen

    Politics, University of Essex
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  • Irina Papkova

    Irina Papkova is a Research Fellow of Georgetown University’s Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. She spent five years teaching at the Department of International Relations and European Studies at Central European University, Budapest.   Print

  • Agnieszka Pasieka

    Ph.D. in Social Anthropology from the Martin Luther University, Halle/Saale
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  • Gleb Pavlovsky

    President, Center of Effective Policies; Member, Public Chamber of the Russian Federation; Editor-in-Chief, The Russian Journal (Moscow)
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  • György Péteri

    Professor of Contemporary European History, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim
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  • Tanja Petrovic

    Tanja Petrovic works at the Scientific Research Center of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Ljubljana.   Print

  • David Petruccelli

    PhD candidate in History, Yale University
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  • Alexander von Plato

    Alexander von Plato ist ein deutscher Philosoph und Historiker. Er gründete das Instituts für Geschichte und Biographie an der Fernuniversität Hagen, das er bis 2007 leitete. Von 1996 bis 2000 war er Sekretär der International Oral History Association, von 2006 bis 2008 deren Vizepräsident. Er ist Mitherausgeber und Redakteur von BIOS – Zeitschrift für Biographieforschung, Oral …
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  • Andrei Plesu

    Andrei Plesu ist Rektor des New Europe College, Bukarest. 1989- 1991 war er rumänischer Kulturminister und 1997- 1999 rumänischer Außenminister.   Print

  • Martin Pollack

    Martin Pollack, geb. 1944 in OÖ, studierte Slawistik und osteuropäische Geschichte. Er war von 1987 bis 1998 Redakteur des “Spiegel” in Warschau und Wien und lebt heute als Schriftsteller und literarischer Übersetzer in Wien und Bocksdorf im Südburgenland. 2011 erhielt er den Leipziger Buchpreis zur Europäischen Verständigung und 2012 den Stanislaw-Vincenz-Preis. Zuletzt erschien von ihm …
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  • Krzysztof Pomian

    Krzysztof Pomian is Professor of History at the Nicolaus Copernicus University (Toruń) and Academic Director of the Museum of Europe in Brussels.   Print

  • Romano Prodi

    Romano Prodi war von September 1999 bis November 2004 Präsident der Europäischen Kommission.   Print

  • Lipin Ram

    PhD candidate and teaching assistant in Anthropology and Sociology of Development, Graduate Institute, Geneva
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  • Mykola Riabchuk

    Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Political and Nationalities’ Studies, Academy of Sciences, Kyiv
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  • Edelbert Richter

    Edelbert Richter ist deutscher Theologe, Politiker und war Mitglied des Deutschen Bundestages.   Print

  • Paul Ricoeur

    Paul Ricoeur ist Philosoph und war Professor Emeritus an der University of Chicago und an der Sorbonne. Er war Mitglied der Académie Francaise und Mitglied des Wissenschaftlichen Beirats des IWM. Er starb 2005.   Print

  • Michel Rocard

    Michel Rocard, former First Secretary of the French Socialist Party and a member of the European Parliament for 15 years, was Prime Minister of France from 1988 to 1991.   Print

  • Akos Rona-Tas

    Akos Rona-Tas is professor at the Sociology Department of the University of California, San Diego and a research associate at Met@risk, INRA, Paris. He is the author of the books Plastic Money: Constructing Markets for Credit Cards in Eight Postcommunist Countries (with Alya Guseva, 2014) and Surprise of the Small Transformation: Demise of Communism and …
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  • Lew Rubinstein

    Lew Rubinstein lebt als Poet und Essayist in Moskau. Nach dem Studium der Philologie war er als Bibliothekar tätig. Seit Ende der 1960er-Jahre verfasst er poetische Arbeiten, seit 1974 serielle Textzyklen als so genannte Kartotheken. Zusammen mit Andrej Monastyrskij, Dimitrij A. Prigov und Vladimir Sorokin gilt er als wichtigster Vertreter des Moskauer Konzeptualismus. Print

  • Jacques Rupnik

    Geschichte und Politikwissenschaft, Paris
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  • Claudia Šabi?

    Claudia Šabi? ist Politikwissenschaftlerin und Ethnologin. Seit 1998 ist sie Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin an der Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main. Print

  • Ranabir Samaddar

    Ranabir Samaddar is the Director of the Calcutta Research Group. His research focuses on migration and refugee studies, the theory and practices of dialogue, nationalism and post-colonial statehood in South Asia, and new regimes of technological restructuring and labour control. Among his many publications are Marginal Nation: Trans-border Migration from Bangladesh to India (1999), Politics of Dialogue: Living under …
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  • Paul Sanders

    Paul Sanders is a historian and management scholar. He is a full-time professor at Reims Management School in Reims, France. He has published across the disciplines of history, international relations and leadership.   Print

  • Karl Schlögel

    Karl Schlögel war Professor für Osteuropäische Geschichte zuerst an der Universität Konstanz, dann an der Europa-Universität Viadrina in Frankfurt/Oder. Nach seiner Emeritierung arbeitet er an einer Archäologie des Kommunismus und einer Geschichte des Wolgaraumes. Zurzeit ist er City of Vienna/IFK Fellow am IFK in Wien.     Print

  • Thomas Schmid

    Thomas Schmid is the publisher of the WELT Group, Berlin. He worked for various newspapers, among them as editor of the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and the Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung. From 2006 to 2010 he was Editor-in-Chief of Die Welt.   Print

  • Margit Schratzenstaller

    Margit Schratzenstaller is senior researcher at the Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO) and is currently coordinating (together with Karl Aiginger and Stefan Ederer) ‘WWW for Europe’, a 4-year research project within the 7th Framework Program funded by the European Commission.   Print

  • Dieter Segert

    Dieter Segert ist Professor für Transformationsprozesse in Mittel-, Südost- und Osteuropa am Institut für Politikwissenschaft der Universität Wien. Seit September 2007 ist er Mitglied des Vorstandes des IDM Wien, seit Juni 2008 Mitglied der Leibniz-Sozietät der Wissenschaften zu Berlin.   Print

  • Victoriya Sereda

    Sociologie, Ivan-Franko-Universität, Lviv
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  • Michel Serres

    Michel Serres ist Philosoph und Mitglied der Académie Française.   Print

  • Marci Shore

    Associate Professor of History, Yale University
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  • Sławomir Sierakowski

    Director, Institute for Advanced Study, Warsaw; Founder, "Krytyka Polityczna" movement
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  • Sara Silverstein

    Ph.D. Candidate in Modern European and International History, Yale University
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  • Aleksander Smolar

    Political Science, Paris
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  • Timothy Snyder

    IWM Permanent Fellow
    Bird White Housum Professor of History, Yale University
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  • George Soros

    George Soros is a pioneer of the hedge-fund industry, investor and philanthropist, he is the author of many books, including Financial Turmoil in Europe and the United States: Essays (2012), The Soros Lectures: At the Central European University (2010), The Crash of 2008 and What it Means: The New Paradigm for Finance Markets (2009).   …
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  • Robert Spaemann

    Robert Spaemann ist Professor em. für Philosophie an der Universität München.   Print

  • Pawel Spiewak

    Associate Professor of Sociology, Department of Sociology and Philosophy, Warsaw University
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  • Wilfried Stadler

    Wilfried Stadler ist Unternehmensberater, Wirtschaftspublizist und Honorarprofessor an der Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien. Bis 2009 war er Vorstandsvorsitzender einer österreichischen Spezialbank für Unternehmensfinanzierung.   Print

  • Rudolf Stamm

    Rudolf Stamm war von 1975 bis 1988 Korrespondent der Neuen Zürcher Zeitung für Osteuropa und Österreich, anschließend bis 1999 für Italien, dann bis zu seiner Pensionierung 2002 für die USA mit Sitz in Washington D.C. Er starb 2010 in der Schweiz. 1985 erscheinen seine NZZ-Reportagen aus Osteuropa in dem Band Alltag und Tradition in Osteuropa. …
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  • Paul Starr

    Paul Starr ist Professor für Soziologie an der Princeton University und Mitherausgeber von The American Prospect. Er ist Pulitzer-Preisträger.   Print

  • Martina Steer

    ÖAW APART Fellow (History)
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  • Kristina Stoeckl

    Research Director
    APART Fellow, Austrian Academy of Sciences; Department of Political Sciences, University of Vienna
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  • Roman Szporluk

    Roman Szporluk is Professor em. of Ukrainian History at Harvard and Professor em. of History at the University of Michigan. He is a foreign member of the National Academy of Sciences in Kiev, Ukraine. His research focuses on modern Ukrainian, Russian, and Polish history, and on Marxism and nationalism in Eastern Europe.   Print

  • Charles Taylor

    IWM Permanent Fellow
    Professor em. of Philosophy, McGill University, Montréal
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  • Maria Teteriuk

    PhD candidate in Mass Communications and senior lecturer in Media Studies, National University of 'Kyiv-Mohyla Academy', Ukraine
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  • Philipp Ther

    Junior Professor of Polish and Ukrainian Studies, Europa-Universität Frankfurt / Oder
    Read more

  • Maria Todorova

    Professor of History, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
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  • Balázs Trencsényi

    Balázs Trencsényi, Ph.D., is Associate Professor at the Department of History, CEU. His research focuses on the comparative history of political thought in East Central Europe and the history of historiography. He is co-director of Pasts, Inc., Center for Historical Studies at CEU and Associate Editor of the periodical East Central Europe (Brill). He was …
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  • Stefan Troebst

    .
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  • Marius Turda

    Lecturer in the Education Abroad Program, Eötvös Lorand University, Faculty of Humanities, Budapest
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  • Andreas Umland

    Andreas Umland ist Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Institut für Euro-Atlantische Kooperation Kiew sowie Herausgeber der Buchreihe Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society, ibidem-Verlag Stuttgart. Print

  • Victoria Vasilenko

    Assistant Professor of Contemporary History and International Relations, Belgorod National Research University
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  • David G. Victor

    David G. Victor is a Professor at the School of International Relations and Pacific Studies at the University of California, San Diego, where he directs the Laboratory on International Law and Regulation.   Print

  • Harald Welzer

    Harald Welzer ist Forschungsprofessor für Sozialpsychologie an der Universität Witten/Herdecke und Direktor des Center for Interdisciplinary Memory Research am Kulturwissenschaftlichen Instituts Essen.   Print

  • Karolina Wigura

    Adjunct of the History of Ideas, University of Warsaw; Co-Editor of Kultura Liberalna
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  • Volodymyr Yermolenko

    Volodymyr Yermolenko is a Ukrainian philosopher and essayist. He has a degree in Political Science from the EHESS, Paris, and teaches at Kyiv Mohyla Academy in Kyiv. He is the author of the book Narrator and Philosopher: Walter Benjamin and his time (2011, in Ukrainian). Print

  • Oksana Zabuzhko

    Free-lance writer, Kiev
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  • Tatiana Zhurzhenko

    Research Director, Russia in Global Dialogue / Ukraine in European Dialogue
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